Strategies for Teachers (2024)

Strategies for Teachers (1)

Upon completion of this section, you will

  • Acquire general recommendations for the classroom that enrich learning for beginning readers and writers
  • Identify tips for the different parts of the reading process that enrich comprehension, fluency, and vocabulary
  • Have ideas to use when teaching children with visual deficits


  • Beginning readers
  • General recommendations
  • Comprehension and fluency
  • Vocabulary
  • Writing
  • Students with visual deficits

Sparking new ideas for your classroom

Malcolm Alexander, the acclaimed dyslexic sculptor, tells a story about one of his teachers who made a difference. According to Malcolm, that teacher said, "When I teach, when I look at a student's work, I always try to find something nice in it. And then go into the rest of it."

This is a gift you can give all students, but particularly those who are dyslexic: find something positive, something they have done well, and acknowledge it. They will remember that comment — and you.

As a teacher, you most likely already have a print-rich environment in your classroom. We know that all teachers, whether they are new to the profession or seasoned veterans, continue to look for suggestions and tweak their skills so they are better able to help their students.

The following suggestions may spark a new idea for your classroom. The good news about honing one's teaching for individuals with dyslexia is that many of the strategies will be helpful to the typical learner as well. And, of importance, the strategies will be particularly helpful to any struggling readers and writers in your classroom.

In addition to general recommendations, there are suggestions to promote phonological awareness skills, reading comprehension and fluency, vocabulary development, oral reading, comprehension of written directions, spelling, and writing. As always, choose the strategies and activities that best fit your students, your classroom, and you.

Some general recommendations for teachers of beginning readers and writers

  1. Make personalized books and stories with the student’s name and photos. Alternatively, have him or her dictate a story and draw pictures, which an adult can then transcribe and bind with a cover.
  2. Increase print awareness by asking your student to look for everything he/she can find with writing (i.e. McDonald’s sign, labels, and packages).
  3. Provide multisensory experiences for students related to each book that they read, such as using stories and coloring pages (available with a story teller guide).
  4. Choose rhyming books with high repetition of words and phrases.
  5. Dramatically pause to allow students to fill in the refrain as you are reading.
  6. Play sound matching games. For example, say, “Let’s think of as many things as we can that start with Mmmm.” Your student might say “Mouse, moo, milk.” If your student has difficulty, give him or her clues. Say: “We drink mmmmm.” Wait two seconds and then provide the answer (“milk”).
  7. Increase the repertoire of shapes your student draws to include circles, triangles, squares, and various facial features, such as eyes and a mouth.
  8. Increase the repertoire of letters your student writes to include all the letters in the alphabet and numbers up to 10.
  9. Guide your student’s drawing and writing by placing your hand on top of his or her hand. Gradually fade the level of assistance.

General recommendations

  1. During times when other students are independently working on class work, the student should have the option to work in a study carrel with headphones to eliminate distractions.
  2. Allow extra time to complete tests.
  3. Provide a regular study buddy whom the student sits next to in class.
  4. Give “THINK TIME” before answering a question. This can be done by presenting a question and then pausing or by coming back to the student after a little while and repeating the question. Alternatively, have multiple students answer the same question. In this way, several models are provided.
  5. Provide opportunities for writing and spelling every day, in a variety of formats, such as writing in a journal, sending an email, writing or copying a list of homework activities, writing on a large wall calendar, writing thank you letters, or archiving items in a collection.
  6. Explicitly teach organization and planning skills for completing and tracking homework. Instruct students how to break down large projects into smaller tasks.
  7. Improve word retrieval for naming through participation in one or more of these games: Scattegories, Taboo, Guesstures, Password, Scrabble, logic puzzles, rebus puzzles, Catch-Phrase, UpWords, Tribond, Plexers, crosswords and other word puzzles.
  8. Give manipulatives (things to touch and move around) whenever possible to work on math related to time, money, or fractions.
  9. Explicitly and systematically teach math to students with dyslexia (including models of proficient problem solving, verbalization of thought processes, guided practice, corrective feedback, and frequent cumulative review). Dyslexia and Mathematics Second Edition edited by T. R. Miles and Elaine Miles, 1992, and The Institute of Education Sciences (IES) Guide for Assisting Students Struggling with Mathematics: Response to Intervention (RtI) for Elementary and Middle Schools provide more information.

Recommendations to support reading comprehension and fluency for classroom materials

Before reading
  1. Preview the title, pictures, chapter names, and bold-faced words in order to make a prediction.
  2. Connect new information to previously learned information by talking about a personal experience related to the theme.
  3. Verbalize or write questions prior to reading the text.
  4. Discuss reading schemas for different types of textbooks (i.e. compare math and history). Highlight salient information that each genre addresses. Visual webs are useful for the student to preview and complete as they encounter key information.
  5. Pre-teach key vocabulary for a particular unit or chapter before introducing the text.
  6. Pre-teach themes or background information (i.e. historical context) for reading fiction.
  7. Explicitly teach “how to use” the table of contents, glossary, index, headings, sidebars, charts, captions, and review questions in a text book.
During reading
  1. Provide a set of textbooks for the student to take home and to highlight.
  2. Assign class readings a week ahead of time for students to preview. This will improve attention and comprehension.
  3. Provide audio recordings for the student to use while reading the text.
    • Books on tape and audio equipment may be obtained, free of charge, through the National Library Service.
    • A large range of books are already scanned and available for free through Bookshare.
  4. Give the student a choice of what to read within selected genres, topics, and themes. High interest reading facilitates comprehension and reading for pleasure. In addition to classroom learning, the “curriculum” should cultivate the students’ interests and strengths (both in and outside of the classroom). The Time on My Hands and Affinities checklists at All Kinds of Minds may be helpful in guiding the student to high-interest reading materials.
  5. Make texts at a variety of reading levels available so that students can read fluently but also be slightly challenged (the appropriate instructional level).
  6. Allow the student to use text-to-speech software for information on the computer.
    • This may be established by setting preferences on a Macintosh computer.
    • Text-to-speech software is available through a free trial over atCNET.
    • A scanner with OCR (optical character recognition) may be used to scan textbooks onto the computer.
  7. Model self-monitoring skills with the following questions: “Does what I’m reading make sense?” “What do I think will happen next?” “Are there any words that I don’t know?” “Can I figure out what the words mean from the sentences around them?”
  8. Encourage sub-vocalization of the text and self-monitoring questions.
  9. Model active engagement with the text through visualization of the scene (i.e. trying to make a “photograph” of the word in his/her mind’s eye while enhancing visual features), highlighting, note taking, or jotting down a question.
  10. Train students to silently read at various rates depending on the purpose; for example, skimming to find a particular term or to get the main idea or gist vs. reading more carefully for directions or comprehension of key concept.
  11. Encourage multiple readings of a text.
  12. Provide templates for students to jot down notes and key concepts as they read (i.e. a story line, visual web, or list of WH-questions).
    • If a student is reading a chapter book or novel, one template should be completed for each scene or chapter.
  13. Bolster comprehension of idioms and more abstract language through reading the scripts of everyday conversations on Randall’s Listening Lab. Students can listen to the conversation as they read. Key vocabulary is highlighted and defined.

Supporting vocabulary while reading

  1. Log unfamiliar words in a personal dictionary that includes the sentence that contains the word, page number, a guess about the meaning, the pronunciation, a dictionary definition, and a new sentence using the word.
  2. Improve vocabulary for written and verbal expression by forming associations between words, paraphrasing, and elaborating on an idea.
  3. Teach prefixes, suffixes, and root words to students to improve spelling, decoding, and comprehension.
  4. Give ample opportunities to practice writing target words. The student might be asked to say them, or use them in sentences or a story.
  5. Look up unfamiliar words with an electronic speller that has speech output (such as the Franklin Speller) or a web-based dictionary. For example, provides the pronunciation and definition of a word.
After reading
  1. Verbalize or write the answers to the pre-reading questions and share the answers with a friend or family member.
  2. Compose an alternative ending for the story or write a sequel.
  3. Act out key scenes from a text or give “How To” demonstrations for kinesthetic learners.
  4. Challenge students to draw inferences from the text (i.e. "How do you think the main character feels?" "Do you think it will be harder to stop a heavier or lighter object traveling at the same velocity?").
Oral reading
  1. Increase reading fluency through a “reading apprenticeship” incorporating the following elements:
    1. Models of fluent reading.
    2. Repetition of the same passage, until reading is fluent.
    3. Dramatic readings (i.e. skits, poetry, and speeches).
    4. Regular tracking and graphing of reading rate and fluency.
  2. See Read Naturally for a systematic program that incorporates choral reading (reading at the same time as a fluent reader), repetitions, and tracking of reading fluency.
  3. For more information on reading apprenticeships, see The Fluent Reader: Oral Reading Strategies for Building Word Recognition, Fluency, and Comprehension, by Timothy Rasinski.
Supporting comprehension of written directions
  1. Present less written material per page with no more than two directions in a sentence. Double spacing and bullets or numbers are also helpful.
  2. Provide additional time to take tests.
  3. Assist the student in breaking apart the written directions into smaller steps.
  4. Check for comprehension of the directions.
  5. Both auditory and written instructions should be provided.
  6. Sub-rehearse (quietly or silently repeating) the directions to keep them in working memory long enough to complete them.

Recommendations to support writing in school

  1. Increase phonetic spelling of unfamiliar words by counting the number of sounds in a word, and then correlating the sounds with letters.
  2. Explicitly teach phonics rules and review them multiple times.
  3. Provide a disproportionate amount of positive feedback for writing (relative to correction). Students should be praised for words that are spelled phonetically and accurately.
  4. Institute delays that require the student to wait 5 minutes before starting a writing task. The student should be instructed to spend those 5 minutes planning.
  5. Explicitly teach the elements of writing narratives or essays.
  6. Brainstorm key vocabulary prior to writing.
  7. Provide a focused spelling program such as Spellography to work on learning specific morphological, semantic and mental orthographic spelling rules.
  8. Group words into word families with multiple exemplars of each phonetic pattern.
  9. Provide models of “good essays” for struggling writers to use as a template.
  10. Dictate stories with an audio recording or dictation software.
  11. Emphasize the need to write in “stages” rather than completing a long narrative in one sitting. The stages should include: planning, writing, and revision.
  12. Teach mnemonic devices for editing such as: SCOPE (spelling, organization, order of words, punctuation, and expresses a complete thought)
  13. Instruct students to create an alternate ending for a familiar story, make a modern day story historic, or create a comic strip of two of the characters having a conversation.
  14. Use word prediction software such as Co:Writer for improving spelling and complex sentence structure.
  15. Text-to-speech software and word processing should be available for editing written work.
  16. Encourage students to keep a journal. To increase motivation, visual images should be added to each page (i.e. “things found” throughout the day: maps, photos, or clippings from a magazine or the internet).
  17. Improve penmanship with a larger pen or pencil grip and raised-line paper.
  18. Practice handwriting using the following low-tech strategies: pencil grips, paper with raised lines and a slant board.

Recommendations for students with visual deficits

  1. Encourage students to use a line guide as he/she is reading, to avoid skipping lines.
  2. Use cut-out window for completing math worksheets.
  3. Give visual pictures for commonly reversed or flipped letters: (i.e. “Which way does the “b”/ “d” go in “bed?”).
  4. Utilize a highlighter for key words, concepts, and/or directions when presented with written material.
  5. Give visual images to associate with problematic sounds such as “short a” and “e” (i.e. Does the “e” in “bed” sound like a “short e” in “elephant” or a “long e” in “eagle?" "Does the “a” in “angel” sound like the “short a” in “alligator” or the “long a” in “ape?”).
  6. Encourage students to keep a copy of a “letter shaping card” in his/her school supplies and homework supplies for an easy reference.

For additional information, download our document below, which summarizes teaching tips from Tutor House. Also download MindShift's PDF, Teachers' Guide to Using Videos.

Tutor House Teaching Tips27.31 KB
MindShift - Teachers' Guide to Using Videos2.66 MB
Strategies for Teachers (2024)


Strategies for Teachers? ›

These six strategies for effective learning are based on evidence-based research and the science of learning. We will explore: spaced practice, retrieval practice, elaboration, concrete examples, dual coding and interleaving.

What are the 6 strategies for effective teaching? ›

These six strategies for effective learning are based on evidence-based research and the science of learning. We will explore: spaced practice, retrieval practice, elaboration, concrete examples, dual coding and interleaving.

What are the 9 teaching strategies? ›

9 Teaching Strategies That Help Students Learn Effectively
  • Inquiry-Based Model.
  • Storyboarding.
  • Peer Tutoring and Assessment.
  • Brainstorming.
  • Reflections.
  • Student-Led Classes.
  • Visual Aids.
  • Interdisciplinary Approach.
Jan 10, 2021

What are the five instructional strategies? ›

Consider the five categories of instructional strategies (direct, indirect, experiential, independent and interactive).

What are the 3 teaching strategies? ›

In essence, the three teaching styles boil down to this:
  • Direct — Tell students what to do.
  • Discuss — Ask questions and listen.
  • Delegate — Empower students.
Sep 30, 2013

What are the 5 strategies in teaching values education? ›

Values education is an explicit attempt to teach about values and/or valuing. Superka, Ahrens, & Hedstrom (1976) state there are five basic approaches to values education: inculcation, moral development, analysis, values clarification, and action learning.

What are the 5 most common teaching styles? ›

In the contemporary classroom, five distinct teaching styles have emerged as the primary strategies adopted by modern teachers: The Authority Style, The Delegator Style, The Facilitator Style, The Demonstrator Style and The Hybrid Style.

What are the 7 ways to facilitate learning? ›

The seven ways of learning are: Behavioral Learning; Cognitive Learning; Learning through Inquiry; Learning with Mental Models; Learning through Groups and Teams; Learning through Virtual Realities; and Experiential Learning.

What are 7 ES teaching strategies? ›

The 7E Instructional Strategy

These phases, Elicit, Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, Evaluate and Extend, according to Gok et al. (2014), allows students to correct their misconceptions through exploration, and facilitate clarification by the teacher, and aided by explanations by the students themselves.

What are the 4 C's in teaching and learning? ›

The four C's of 21st Century skills are:

Critical thinking. Creativity. Collaboration. Communication.

What are the Big Eight teaching strategies? ›

In the morning you will learn about the Big 8 classroom management strategies from the book Class Acts. These are: Expectations, Cueing, Tasking, Attention Prompts, Signals, Voice, Time Limits, and Proximity.

What is the ABC strategy education? ›

What is the ABC approach? ABC stands for antecedent (A), behaviour (B) and consequence (C). It is an observation tool that teachers can use to analyse what happened before, during and after a behaviour1. All behaviour can be thought of as communication.

What are the two main teaching strategies? ›

The two main types of teaching methods & strategies are teacher-centered instruction and student-centered instruction.

What are two core teaching strategies? ›

Top 5 Teaching Strategies
  • Differentiated Instruction: Learning Stations. Differentiated instruction strategies allow teachers to engage each student by accommodating to their specific learning style. ...
  • Cooperative Learning: The Jigsaw Method. ...
  • Utilizing Technology in the Classroom. ...
  • Inquiry-Based Instruction. ...
  • Graphic Organizers.
Oct 3, 2019

What are the 10 strategies to improve instructional leadership? ›

Instructional leadership and why it matters
  • A strong focus on learning.
  • Developing teaching and learning objectives.
  • Holding high expectations of students.
  • Creating and supporting student learning goals.
  • Monitoring learner progress.
  • Protecting instructional time.
  • Coordinating curriculum.
  • Providing instructional support.
Mar 10, 2021

What is the most effective teaching style? ›

Experiential learning is a great teaching method because it encourages creativity, helps students learn from mistakes, fosters reflective thinking, and prepares students for future experiences. It can be effective for several subjects, especially during science experiments, sports coaching, and group projects.

What are the 4 classroom management styles? ›

Classroom management can be done in four different ways: authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and indulgent. This article is here to help you out with 4 different classroom management styles a teacher must know.

What are the 10 high impact teaching strategies? ›

The 10 high impact teaching strategies that have been identified to provide the most benefits are:
  • Setting goals.
  • Structuring lessons.
  • Explicit teaching.
  • Worked examples.
  • Collaborative learning.
  • Multiple exposures.
  • Questioning.
  • Feedback.
Jun 10, 2022

What classroom strategies promote moral education? ›

Most studies on teaching strategies for moral education recommend a problem‐based approach to instruction whereby students work in small groups. This approach gives room for dialogue and interaction between students, which is considered to be crucial for their moral and prosocial development.

What makes a great teacher? ›

Some qualities of a good teacher include skills in communication, listening, collaboration, adaptability, empathy and patience. Other characteristics of effective teaching include an engaging classroom presence, value in real-world learning, exchange of best practices and a lifelong love of learning.

How do you motivate students? ›

Tips On How To Motivate Your Students
  1. Become a role model for student interest. ...
  2. Get to know your students. ...
  3. Use examples freely. ...
  4. Use a variety of student-active teaching activities. ...
  5. Set realistic performance goals. ...
  6. Place appropriate emphasis on testing and grading. ...
  7. Be free with praise and constructive in criticism.

What are the C's of effective teaching? ›

Five C's for teaching. Use connectedness, conversation, curiosity, consideration, and community and culture to create a successful learning environment.

What is the core method of teaching? ›

Core instruction often consists of traditional, teacher-centered strategies such as whole-group instruction, independent practice, and possibly some group activities or interactions. Teachers usually lead and direct students through these activities.

What are the 6 learning skills? ›

The six learning skills and work habits are responsibility, organization, independent work, collaboration, initiative, and self-regulation.

Why is it called the 3 Rs? ›

The three Rs are three basic skills taught in schools: reading, writing and arithmetic (usually said as "reading, 'riting, and 'rithmetic"). The phrase appears to have been coined at the beginning of the 19th century. The term has also been used to name other triples (see Other uses).

What are the 21st skills? ›

Everett Public Schools in Everett, Washington defines 21st century skills as citizenship, collaboration, communication, creativity, critical thinking, and growth mindset.

What are the 8 habits of highly effective 21st century teachers? ›

Eight habits of highly effective 21st century teachers
  • Adapting. ...
  • Being visionary. ...
  • Collaborating. ...
  • Taking risks. ...
  • Learning. ...
  • Communicating. ...
  • Modelling behaviour. ...
  • Leading.
Aug 15, 2008

What is the cognitive approach ABC? ›

The ABC model is a tool used in cognitive behavioral therapy to recognize irrational events and beliefs. It stands for antecedents, beliefs, and consequences. The goal of the ABC model is to learn to use rational thinking to respond to situations in a healthy way.

What is ABC intervention model? ›

A simple model of crisis intervention is the ABC Model. A number of crisis intervention models use this same three step process. Essentially, it involves establishing a relationship (A), understanding the problem (B), and taking action (C).

What is ABC goal? ›

ABC Target goals is an approach that takes the overall goal you'd like to accomplish and breaks it down into smaller, logical milestones. This creates a step-by-step map you can follow that will help guide you to your ultimate goal.

What is the Diamond 9 teaching strategy? ›

The 'Diamond Nine' technique is an established active learning approach, which involves students ranking and prioritising nine ideas, viewpoints, or pieces of information into what they consider highest to lowest importance (Times Educational Supplement, n.d.).

What are Marzano's 9 high yield instructional strategies? ›

Hold high expectations, display finished products, praise students' effort, encourage students to share ideas and express their thoughts, honor individual learning styles, conference individually with students, authentic portfolios, stress-free environment, high- fives, Spelling Bee, Constitution Day, School Newspaper, ...

What are the 8 teaching skills? ›

The results revealed eight teaching skills in sequence: (1) question skills, (2) reinforcement skill, (3) variation skill, (4) explainning skill, (5) opening and close skill, (6) small group discussions skill, (7) class management skills, (8) skill of organizing small group work and invidual work.

What is the diamond lesson plan? ›

The Diamond Lesson Plan is your guide to creating, stimulating, challenging and creative lessons to an outstanding Ofsted and/or other inspection agencies standards.

What does diamond mean in education? ›

Diamond school, diamond model, diamond shape and diamond structure are similar terms that apply to a type of independent school in the UK that combines both single-sex and coeducational teaching in the same organisation.

What are the four 4 types of instructional methods? ›

Do you know what the four types of instructional methods are? The four types are information processing, behavioral, social interaction, and personal. Within each model, several strategies can be used. Strategies determine the approach a teacher may take to achieve learning objectives.

What is the most widely used instructional strategy? ›

Assessment. One of the most used instructional strategies, assessments are considered any graded test, quiz, project, or exam. Informal checks of student progress throughout the year, such as discussions or presentations, can be included too.

What is the 5 3 1 instructional strategy? ›

5-3-1 (alone, pair, group) Pose a question/topic. Students brainstorm 5 answers. Then they work in a pair to come up with the 3 best. Then the pair joins with another pair to come up with the 1 most important.

What are hatties high yield strategies? ›

  • Hattie and Marzano Crosswalk. ...
  • Hattie's Most Effective. ...
  • A Clear Focus for the Lesson. ...
  • Offer Overt Instruction. ...
  • Get the Students to Engage with. ...
  • Give Feedback. ...
  • Multiple Exposures. ...
  • Have Students Apply Their.

What are 5 important skills for teachers? ›

These are the 10 most important skills you should develop for a successful career in teaching:
  • Critical thinking skills. ...
  • Patience. ...
  • Communication skills. ...
  • Organisational skills. ...
  • Creative thinking abilities. ...
  • Leadership skills. ...
  • Capacity for teamwork. ...
  • Time management skills.
Apr 22, 2023


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