6 Essential Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners (2024)

Over 10 percent of students in the United States—more than 4.8 million kids—are English language learners (ELLs), and the number is on the rise. Though these students do not learn differently than their native-English-speaking peers, they do have particular educational needs.

To learn about these needs—and best practices for addressing them—I interviewed a range of educators and observers, including Larry Ferlazzo, an educator and author of The ESL/ELL Teacher’s Survival Guide; longtime teachers of English as a second language (ESL) Emily Francis and Tan Huynh; and the journalist Helen Thorpe, who spent a year observing a teacher who works with ELLs.

The group emphasized that the strategies listed here, which include both big-picture mindsets and nitty-gritty teaching tactics, can be incorporated into all classrooms, benefiting both native English speakers and ELLs.

1. Cultivate Relationships and Be Culturally Responsive

No surprise here. A successful classroom, our educators agreed, is one in which students feel known, appreciated, and comfortable taking emotional and intellectual risks. That requires intentional planning and consistent messaging by the teacher.

Emily Francis, an ESL teacher in Concord, North Carolina, makes clear that she wants her students to “embrace their culture and their language as a foundation of who they are” and to consider their acquisition of a new culture and language “not as subtractive, but as additive.” To help support students who may never have attended school before or may be coping with migration-based trauma, Francis emphasizes that little things make a big difference. “The first thing that I need to think about is, how is my student feeling in my classroom?” she says. “Are they sitting next to a buddy they can ask a question in their home language? Do they feel comfortable tapping me on the shoulder if they have to go to the bathroom?”

But creating a supportive environment is also about cultivating an appreciation of diversity—it’s critical that both the curriculum and the classroom environment honor and reflect the lives of the students. For instance, Francis makes certain that her classroom library is reflective of her students’ diverse backgrounds and identities.

ESL teacher Katie Toppel, who teaches near Portland, Oregon, champions the value of home visits to get to know students’ families and takes care to incorporate the particulars of students’ lives, such as pets’ names and favorite sports, into lessons. Students are most engaged when they feel a personal connection to a lesson or unit, a connection that’s created in part by a teacher’s investment in culturally competent relationships.

2. Teach Language Skills Across the Curriculum

English language learners should not be learning the fundamentals of English in isolation; they should be applying their developing language skills to rich academic content in all subjects.

“It is key that in mainstream classrooms, teachers understand their role as language teachers,” says Valentina Gonzalez, a district leader in Katy, Texas, suggesting that all teachers should be aware of the specialized idiom they work within. “If we teach math, then we teach the language of mathematics. If we teach science, then we teach the language of science.” Math teachers, in other words, should take the time to teach the unfamiliar vocabulary of mathematics—add, subtract, calculator, solve—concurrently with the teaching of math skills.

3. Emphasize Productive Language

The educators I interviewed agreed that productive language skills—hard-to-master dimensions of language fluency like speaking and writing—should be front and center from day one, even if students feel hesitant about them.

Beginning ELLs often develop receptive language skills like listening and reading first. Educators who are unaware of the typical path to fluency may believe that students who can follow verbal or written directions will be able to produce oral or written language, but that’s usually not the case.

To support reluctant speakers, Tan Huynh, an educator who blogs at Empowering ELLs, suggests using sentence frames. “For example, when a science teacher wants ELLs to produce a hypothesis, they might offer the sentence, ‘If _____ was added, then _____ because _____.’ This sentence frame provides clues that empower ELLs to sound and think like scientists,” Huynh says.

Andrea Honigsfeld, a professor of education at Molloy College in Rockville, New York, suggests that all lessons touch on every letter of the acronym SWIRL, which stands for Speak, Write, Interact, Read, Listen. The approach intentionally privileges productive language skills “from the beginning,” she says.

4. Speak Slowly—and Increase Your Wait Time

Easier said than done. Still, many of the teachers I spoke to said this simple change is vital. You can record yourself speaking in class to measure your cadence, and adjust.

“Adding in an extra three to five seconds after we pose a question offers all students time to think,” explains Gonzalez. “However, for English learners, it also gives time to translate, process their thinking, translate back into English, and develop the courage to answer. If we call on students too quickly, many of our students will stop thinking about the answers—or trying to answer at all.”

That means undoing some of our own habits, according to Larry Ferlazzo, a high school ESL teacher in Sacramento, California. “Researchers have found that typically most teachers give one to two seconds between asking a question and expecting a student response,” he says. “The same researchers have shown that if you wait three to five seconds, the quality of responses is astronomically greater.”

5. Differentiate—and Use Multiple Modalities

All kids learn better when they engage with materialin multiple ways: Lessons that involve writing, speaking, drawing, and listening, for example, give students four opportunities to deepen their understanding of the work. For ELLs, those additional engagements also provide a little breathing room so they can work through the language barrier.

Helen Thorpe, a journalist who spent a year observing Eddie Williams’s classroom in Denver in order to write a book about immigrants called The Newcomers, marveled at Williams’s method of differentiation. “Eddie would enunciate very clearly in English multiple times, he would write it on the board, and he would go to the projector to give a visual. And, finally, he’d be asking the kids to verbalize aspects of the lesson themselves,” she says, tracing Williams’s efforts to move his students from receptive to productive language fluency.

Toppel uses a strategy called QSSSA to scaffold classroom discussions with ELLs. The letters stand for Question (the teacher poses a question, then gives ample think time); Signal (a designated motion like a thumbs-up, a finger on the nose—something that lets students indicate that they’re ready to answer); Stem (the teacher provides a sentence starterfor the question—for example, for “What is your favorite place to read a book?” the stem might be, “My favorite place to read a book is _____”); Share; and Assess.

6. Incorporate Students’ Native Languages—and Don’t Be Afraid of Technology

Bilingualism is the goal, of course, not replacement.

Ferlazzo uses a strategy called “preview, view, review,” which leverages a student’s native language skills as a foundation for learning the new language. He introduces a topic and encourages students to preview it in materials in their home language (often using multilingual videos and other online resources); he then teaches the topic in English, and then has students review the information in their home language.

Ferlazzo also encourages teachers to embrace technologies that students find helpful, like Google Translate. He stresses that the app can be a useful way for students to translate words quickly—but warns that it can quickly “become a dependency” if it’s used as more than a handy dictionary.

Thorpe agrees that Translate can take pressure off teachers, who sometimes find that they “just stand at the front of the room and say things over and over. And if the kids didn’t know what those words are, they’re out of luck.” Translation technology means you can say it once (or twice) and let the students use the technology to translate key words and phrases.

6 Essential Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners (2024)


6 Essential Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners? ›

What would those six tools be? According to the authors, those six tools are: (1) Reading for Meaning, (2) Compare and Contrast, (3) Inductive Learning, (4) Circle of Knowledge, (5) Write to Learn, and (6) Vocabulary's CODE.

What are the 6 key teaching strategies? ›

What would those six tools be? According to the authors, those six tools are: (1) Reading for Meaning, (2) Compare and Contrast, (3) Inductive Learning, (4) Circle of Knowledge, (5) Write to Learn, and (6) Vocabulary's CODE.

What are the six 6 language teaching principles teachers must use as guide for effective language acquisition and learning to take place? ›

1) Know your student and motivation to learn the second language 2) Create a welcoming classroom environment 3) Build Background Knowledge 4) Provide Comprehensible Input by building vocabulary 5) Include frequent opportunities for Interaction and Discussion 6) Use Multiple Modalities during instruction 7) Conduct ...

What are the six 6 different learning approaches? ›

Specifically, six key learning strategies from cognitive research can be applied to education: spaced practice, interleaving, elaborative interrogation, concrete examples, dual coding, and retrieval practice.

What are 5 popular ESL teaching methods? ›

In the contemporary classroom, there are five main teaching styles by ESL teachers: The Authority Style, The Delegator Style, The Facilitator Style, The Demonstrator Style, and The Hybrid.

How do you teach elements of language to Ells? ›

End of newsletter promotion.
  1. Cultivate Relationships and Be Culturally Responsive. ...
  2. Teach Language Skills Across the Curriculum. ...
  3. Emphasize Productive Language. ...
  4. Speak Slowly—and Increase Your Wait Time. ...
  5. Differentiate—and Use Multiple Modalities. ...
  6. Incorporate Students' Native Languages—and Don't Be Afraid of Technology.
Apr 12, 2019

What are the responsibilities of an ELL teacher? ›

Teacher(s) overall focus is to help ELL students increase their English language skills in reading, writing, speaking, and listening by providing specific instruction to meet their individual needs. This position(s) covers all ELL students in grades K-12.

How do you motivate students in ELL? ›

Here are some strategies that should get your teens a bit more motivated.
  1. How To Motivate ESL Students.
  2. Use as many references to pop culture as you can. ...
  3. Give them a little friendly competition. ...
  4. Cater to their skills and exploit their talents. ...
  5. Use pen pals to motivate writing. ...
  6. Make reading age appropriate.

What are the 6 principles of language learning process? ›

Principle 1 Children learn what they hear most. Principle 2 Children learn words for things and events that interest them. Principle 3 Interactive and responsive rather than passive contexts promote language learning. Principle 4 Children learn words best in meaningful contexts.

Why do we need the 6 principles for exemplary teaching of English learners? ›

TESOL International Association has defined a core set of six principles for the exemplary teaching of English learners. The 6 Principles™ will help you make informed decisions to support English- language instruction and assessment.

What are the 6 domains of language teaching? ›

The six language domains are listening, speaking, reading, writing, viewing, and visually representing.

What are the four elements of ESL? ›

Teachers should set high standards for an ESL classroom. They should work to create the necessary condition for students to learn effectively and reach the desired outcome. For the teaching of English to be successful, the four skills, reading, listening, speaking and writing, should be integrated in an effective way.

What are the four influential ESL approaches? ›

This chapter provided four theories for how ESL students learn English, which are Behaviorist, Innatist, Cognitivist, and Interactionist.

What is the most common teaching method in ESL? ›

Communicative language teaching is perhaps the most popular approach among the methods of teaching ESL today. CLT emphasizes the students' ability to communicate in real-life contexts, and students learn to make requests, accept offers, explain things, and express their feelings and preferences.

What is the 7 step strategy for ELL? ›

The seven steps are: (1) Reading and/or listening to a story; (2) Defining and visualizing words; (3) Identifying parts of speech; (4) Categorizing words; (5) Completing cloze activities; (6) Producing a skit or creating a visual; and (7) Playing a word game with new words.

What are the 3 key ESOL strategies? ›

Therefore, it is critical that teachers create nurturing learning environments by employing strategies such as circumlocution (offering multiple ways to define a word or phrase), paraphrasing, and repetition.

What do ELL students struggle with in the classroom? ›

Your ELL students who lack the vocabulary that their peers have struggle with concepts like hom*onyms and synonyms, and can suffer from poor communication in the classroom.

What do ELL students struggle with? ›

Being unable to communicate with their teachers and peers can cause the student to feel isolated or even make them a target for bullies. This can have long-term effects on their self-confidence and ability to integrate into society.

What is the difference between ESL and ELL? ›

English language learner (ELL) refers to a student who is age 5 or older and who is learning English as a second language. English as a second language (ESL) is an approach in which students who are not native English speakers are mainly taught in English. It focuses on language skills rather than content.

How do you teach newcomer ELLs? ›

Scaffold their instruction
  1. Allow students to use their native language. Remember that your ELLs' first language is an asset. ...
  2. Provide model texts. ELL newcomers need to see examples of the type of writing that is expected of them. ...
  3. Use sentence frames. ...
  4. Incorporate a word wall.
Mar 20, 2023

How do you teach unmotivated ESL students? ›

Managing Unmotivated Learners
  1. Share the Benefits of English Language. First and foremost, unmotivated learners may simply need to know why they are in your class. ...
  2. Help Them See Improvements. ...
  3. Encourage them to Answer. ...
  4. Be Quiet. ...
  5. Allow Them to Respond Without Interruption. ...
  6. Find Their Interests.
Jan 17, 2021

How do you stay motivated throughout the day as an ESL teacher? ›

6 tips to stay motivated as an ESL teacher
  1. #1 Remember the reasons why you love teaching English. ...
  2. #2 Focus on the good. ...
  3. #3 Try something new. ...
  4. #4 Exchange ideas with your colleagues. ...
  5. #5 Remind yourself that you are important. ...
  6. #6 Take time off teaching.
Mar 9, 2020

What are the 5 E's teaching strategies? ›

o The 5Es represent five stages of a sequence for teaching and learning: Engage, Explore, Explain, Extend (or Elaborate), and Evaluate. personally involved in the lesson, while pre-assessing prior understanding.

What are the 5 instructional teaching strategies? ›

Consider the five categories of instructional strategies (direct, indirect, experiential, independent and interactive).

What are 7 ES teaching strategies? ›

The 7E Instructional Strategy

These phases, Elicit, Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, Evaluate and Extend, according to Gok et al. (2014), allows students to correct their misconceptions through exploration, and facilitate clarification by the teacher, and aided by explanations by the students themselves.

What are the 7 E's lesson plan in English? ›

Sometimes it may take more than one lesson to complete the cycle. So what is it? The 7 Es stand for the following. Elicit, Engage, Explore,Explain, Elaborate, Extend and Evaluate.

Which is the best teaching strategy to be used in a classroom? ›


This strategy, if used well, can drastically help students focus on the concept or subject matter at hand. It brings concepts to life and encourages students to make connections to the real world.

What are the 10 high impact teaching strategies? ›

The 10 strategies are:
  • Setting goals.
  • Structuring lessons.
  • Explicit teaching.
  • Worked examples.
  • Collaborative learning.
  • Multiple exposures.
  • Questioning.
  • Feedback.

What is a core teaching strategy? ›

Core instruction often consists of traditional, teacher-centered strategies such as whole-group instruction, independent practice, and possibly some group activities or interactions. Teachers usually lead and direct students through these activities.


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